Business Analysis Planning & Monitoring

2.0 Overview

  • Identifying stakeholders
  • Defining roles and responsabilities of stakeholders in BA effort
  • Developing estimates for BA tasks
  • Planning how the business analyst will communicate with stakeholders
  • Planning how REQ will be approached, traced and prioritized
  • Determining the deliverables that the BA will produce
  • Defining and determining BA processes
  • Determining the metrics that will be used for monitoring BA work

2.1 Plan Business Analysis Approach

  • Purpose
    • To select an approach to performing BA
    • Which stakeholders need to be involved in the decision
    • Who will be consulted and informed of the approach
  • Description
    • Overwall x Agile Techniques (elements can be combined)
    • Formal standards x informal (tailored to the needs)
    • If no standards exist, determine how the work will be complited
      • With Project Manager and project team
  • Inputs
    • Business Need – problem, oportunity, risks, timeframe
    • Expert Judment – consultants and prior experiences
    • Organizational Process Assets
      • Methodologies, tools, techniques, templates and deliverables
  • Elements
    • Plan-Driven – PD
      • Minimizing up-front uncertainty
      • Ensuring that the solution is fully defined
      • Maximize control and minimize risks
      • REQ defined before/in advance of implementation
      • Waterfall methods
    • Change-Driven – CD
      • Rapid delivery
      • Short interactions
      • Exploratory
      • Incremental improvement
      • Agile metodologies
    • Considerations
      • Timing of BA Work
        • PD – Focus on elicitation, analysing, documenting, verifying and communicating requirements
        • CD – Produce na initial list os high-level requirements (requeriments envisioning), prioritized and reprioritized
      • Formality and Level of Detail of BA Deliverables
        • PD – Formality and detail
        • CD – Prioritized list of requirements
      • Requirements Prioritization
        • PD – Based on total solution scope
        • CD – Emphasis on effective requirements prioritization methods
      • Change Management
        • PD – Just when necessary, as a “mini-project”
        • CD – Prioritized and selected on the next iteration
      • BA Planning Process
        • It will be integrated into a larger project plan
      • Communication with Stakeholders
        • PD – Forma method, pre-defined forms
        • CD – Frequency of communication, post-implementation
      • Requirement Analysis and Management Tools
        • Shape the selection of BA techniques
      • Project complexity: Factors
        • Number of stakeholders
        • Number of business areas affected
        • Number of business systems affected
        • Amount and nature of risk
        • Uniqueness of requirements
        • Number of technical resources required
  • Techniques
  • Stakeholders
    • Customer, Domain SME, End user and Supplier
    • Implementation SME
    • Project Manager
    • Tester
    • Regulator
    • Sponsor
  • Output
    • BA Approach – Team roles, deliverables, BA techniques, timing and frequency of interations with stakeholders

2.2 Conduct Stakeholder Analysis

  • Purpose
    • Identification of stakeholders, for the project or phase, who:
    • Maybe affected by a proposed initiative
    • Share a common business need
    • Determining stakeholder influence and/or authority regarding the approval of project deliverables
  • Description
    • Roles and responsabilities clearly described
    • Stakeholder may be grouped into categories
  • Input
    • Business Need
    • Enterprise Architecture
    • Organizational Process Assets
  • Elements
    • Stakeholder roles must be identified early to ensure deliberables
      • Identification:
        • Understand who are the stakeholders
        • Can vary between projects, methodologies, organizations
      • Complexity of Stakeholder Group, vary according with:
        • Number and variety of direct end users
        • Number of interfacing business processes and automated systems
      • Attitude and influence, towards:
        • Business goals and objectives
        • Solution approach
        • Sponsor
      • Influence:
        • On the project and in the organization
        • Need for the the good of the project
        • With other stakeholders
      • Authority Levels for BA Work, to:
        • Approve the deliverables
        • Inspect and approve the REQ
        • Request and approve changes
        • Review and approve the traceability structure
  • Techniques
  • Stakeholder
    • Domain SME / Implementation SME
    • Project Manager
    • Tester / Regulator / Sponsor
  • Output
    • Stakeholder List, Roles and Responsabilities
      • List of required roles
      • Names and titles of stakeholders, category, location, special needs
      • Stakeholder influence and interest
      • Documentation of stakeholder authority levels

2.3 Plan BA Activities

  • Purpose
    • Determine the activities that must be performed
    • Deliverables that must be produced
    • Estimate the effort required to perform that work
    • Identify the management tools required to measure the progress of those activities and deliverables
  • Description
    • Activities for a given initiative, to:
    • Identify BA deliverables
    • Determine the scope of work
    • Determine which activities the BA will perform and when
    • Develop estimates for BA work
  • Input
    • BA Approach
      • Defines the lifecycle, deliverables, templates and tasks:
        • PD – Define requirements as early as possible to reduce uncertainty
        • CD – Define requirements as close to implementation as possible
    • BA Performance Assessment
      • Use prior experiences to determine the effort in performing BA work
    • Organization Process Assets
      • May mandate certain deliverables
    • Stakeholder List, Roles and Responsabilities
  • Elements
    1. Geographic Distribution of Stakeholders
      • Consider physical location of key stakeholders
        • Collocated
        • Dispersed
      • Outsourced development:
        • Requirement documentation and acceptance criteria, or
        • More frequent review sessions
    2. Type of Project or Initiative, may have a significant impact on the activities that need to be performed, included:
      • Feasibility studies / Process improvement
      • Organization change / Development or outsourced
      • Software maintenance / Software package selection
    3. BA Deliverables
      • Basis to identify activities. Some methods:
        • Interviews with stakeholders
        • Review project documentation
        • Review organization process assets
      • Frequently becames a requirements package
    4. Determine BA Activities
      • WBS – Work Breakdown Structure
        • Decomposes project scope into smaller pieces
        • Creates hierarchy of work
        • Project -> Interations, releases or phases
        • Deliverables -> Packages
        • Activities -> Smaller tasks
          • This point creates a list of activities
        • List of Activities can be created:
          • Breaking each activitie into tasks
          • Dividing the project into phases, interations
          • Using a previous similar project
        • The elements of each activitie includes:
          • An unique number
          • Description of the activitie labeled with a verb + substantive (Ex: Update REQ documentation)
          • Can include:
            • Assumptions – Considered to be true
            • Dependences – Logical relationships
            • Milestones – Events to mesuare the progress
  • Techniques
  • Stakeholders
    • May participate in the verification and validation of BA deliberables
      • Customer, Supplier, End User, Domain SME
        • Major source of REQ, critical availability
      • Implementation SME
      • Project Manager
        • BA scope is managed as part of overall project scope
      • Operacional Support / Tester / Sponsor
  • Output
    • BA Plan – Description of work scope
      • WBS / Activity List/ Estimates
      • When and how it must be changed in response of changes
    • All tasks have BA plans as an implicity input

2.4 Plan BA Communication

  • Purpose
    • Describe the structure and schedule for comunications
    • Record and organize the activities for setting expectations of BA work, meetings, and others
  • Description
    • Determining how best:
    • To receive, distribute, access, update and escalate information
    • Decide which format are appropriate for a initiative
    • Present REQ understandable, clear, concise and accurate
    • Considerations:
      • What, how, for who and when to comunicate
      • Physical location, types of communication, of REQ
  • Input
    • BA Approach
      • Standards and models used for communication
    • BA Plan
      • Deliverables that need to be comunicated
    • Organizational Process Assets
      • Standards and models for use in communication
    • Stakeholders list, roles and responsabilities
      • When information needs to be provided
  • Element
    1.  Geography
      • Stakeholders collocated or dispersed
    2. Culture
      • Language barriers
      • Subtle differences of relationship:
        • Natural Commitments x Concerns/Goals:
          • Time and task completion
        • Law x Spirit of the contract
        • Centralized power x Involve all affected
          • Formal and Informal authority
    3. Project Type
      • Different deliverables:
        • New software – All REQ included
        • Technology Upgrade –Technical REQ
        • Change in a business process – Process and data REQ, business rules, funcional and technical REQ
        • Software package – Require RFP, business REQ, technical REQ, functional and others
    4. Communication Frequency
      • For each type of communication
      • Can vary from stakeholder to stakeholder
    5. Communications Formality
      • Level necessary could vary from stakeholder to stakeholder and project phase
      • Tends to be more formal when:
        • The project is unusually large
        • The domain involved is very complex
        • The technology is new to the organization
        • The project is considered to be mission critical
        • The executive sponsor require formality
        • REQ to be subject to regulatory review
        • REQ to be presented in na RFP/RFQ/RFI
  • Techniques
    • Structured Walkthrough
      • Common approaches to requirements communication
      • Time to conduct each walkthrough must be included in the plan
  • Stakeholders
    • Customer and Supplier
    • Domain SME
    • End Use
    • Implementation SME
    • Operational Support
    • Project Manager
    • Tester
    • Regulator
    • Sponsor
  • Output
    • BA communication plan, describes:
      • How, when and why the business analyst will work directly with stakeholders
      • Format, content, medium, level of detail

2.5 Plan Requirements Management Process

  • Purporse
    • To approve requirements for implementation
    • Manage changes to the solution or requirements scope
  • Description
    • Determines the appropriate process for :
      • Requirements change
      • Which stakeholders need to approve change,
      • Who will be consulted or informed of changes,
      • Who does not need to be involved
  • Inputs
    • BA Approach – Appropriate requirements management processes
    • BA Plan – Which deliverables are to be produced and when
    • Organizational Process Assets – Standard template
  • Elements
    1. Repository
      • Method of storing requirements
      • May include whiteboards, word processing documents
      • All approved requirements should be found in a repository
      • Stakeholders need to be able to locate requirements in that repository
    2. Traceability
      • Determine whether and how to trace requirements
      • Based on the complexity of the domain, the number of views of requirements that will be produced
      • Must be done correctly and consistently to have value
    3. Select REQ Attributes
      • Provide information about requirements
      • Allow the requirements team to associate information with individual or related groups of requirements
      • Helps the team efficiently and effectively make tradeoffs between requirements
      • Commonly used requirements attributes include:
        • Absolute reference
        • Author of the requirement
        • Complexity
        • Ownership
        • Priority
        • Risks
    4. Requirements Prioritization Process
      • Focuses effort on determining which requirements should be investigated first
      • Based on the risk associated with them, the cost to deliver them, the benefits they will produce, or other factors
        • Formality
        • Establishing The Process And Technique
        • Plan The Participation
    5. Change Management
      • Considerations when planning for handling changes:
        • Determine the process for requesting changes
        • Determine who will authorize changes
        • Impact Analysis
        • Plan the wording of the request
          • The requirements process needs to spell out the nature of the components within a request for change. These might include:
            • Cost and time estimates of change
            • Benefits and risks of the change
            • Recommended course of action for change
        • Coordinate Prioritization of Change
    6. Tailoring the Requirements Management Process
      • To meet the needs of a specific initiative or project. Factors:
        • Organizational culture
        • Stakeholder preferences
        • Complexity of project, project phase, or product
        • Organizational maturity
        • Availability of resources
  • Techniques
  • Stakeholders
    • Domain SME
    • End User
    • Implementation SME
    • Operational Support
    • Project Manager
    • Tester
    • Sponsor
  • Output
    • Requirements Management Plan, describes the:
      • Approach to be taken to structure traceability
      • Definition of requirements attributes to be used
      • Requirements prioritization process
      • Requirements change process, including how changes will be requested

2.6 Manage BA Performance

  • Purpose
    • To manage the performance of business analysis activities to ensure that they are executed as effectively as possible
  • Description
    • Determining which metrics will be used to measure the work
    • How to track, assess, and report on the quality of the work
    • Take steps to correct any problems that may arise
    • May feed into the development of future business analysis plans
  • Inputs
    • Business Analysis Performance Metrics
    • Business Analysis Plan
    • Organizational Performance Standards
    • Requirements Management Plan
  • Elements
    1. Performance Measures
      • Based on deliverable due dates as specified in the BA plan
      • Metrics such as the frequency of changes to REQ or the number of review cycles required
      • Identify opportunities for improvement
    2. Performance Reporting
      • Can be in written format to provide for archival and tracking
    3. Preventive And Corrective Action
      • Where problems in executing BA activities are occurring
      • Opportunities for improving the BA process exist
      • Engage the necessary stakeholders to identify the correct preventative or corrective actions
  •  Techniques
  • Stakeholders
    • Domain SME and End User
    • Implementation SME, Operational Support, and Tester
    • Project Manager
    • Sponsor
  • Output
    • Business Analysis Performance Assessment
      • Comparison of planned versus actual performance
      • The level of effort required to complete BA work
    • Business Analysis Process Assets
      • Recommendations for improvement to the BA process
      • Should be analyzed and documented
      • Lessons learned should be recorded

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